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Hunter Lee
Hunter Lee

Pedagogy And Practice: Teaching And Learning [PORTABLE]


Art History Pedagogy & Practice is a peer-reviewed open access e-journal devoted to scholarship of teaching and learning in art history. It is published by Art History Teaching Resources (AHTR), a peer-populated open educational resource, in partnership with the Office of Library Services of the City University of New York and the Graduate Center at the City University of New York.




Pedagogy and Practice: Teaching and Learning



As one of many approaches to educational research, it is important to distinguish the potential purposes of action research in the classroom. This book focuses on action research as a method to enable and support educators in pursuing effective pedagogical practices by transforming the quality of teaching decisions and actions, to subsequently enhance student engagement and learning. Being mindful of this purpose, the following aspects of action research are important to consider as you contemplate and engage with action research methodology in your classroom:


Situated in our teaching-led School of Education and aimed at greater inter-disciplinary collaboration, PPP gives excellent opportunities to share skills and develop our internal and external reputation for pedagogy.


Pedagogy is broadly defined to include a wide range of educational relationships and interactions in various settings, both formal and informal. This strand focuses on creative and effective pedagogy at all phases of education and draws on the expertise of members who are interested in researching and developing new pedagogical approaches. We reconceptualise methodologies of teaching and learning through innovative approaches to pedagogy and practice.


In addition to teachers' subject matter (content) knowledge and their general knowledge of instructional methods (pedagogical knowledge), pedagogical content knowledge was originally suggested as a third major component of teaching expertise, by Lee Shulman (1986; 1987) and his colleagues and students (e.g. Carlsen, 1987; Grossman, Wilson, & Shulman, 1989; Gudmundsdottir, 1987a, 1987b; Gudmundsdottir & Shulman, 1987; Marks, 1990). This idea represents a new, broader perspective in our understanding of teaching and learning, and a special issue of the Journal of Teacher Education (Ashton, 1990) was devoted to this topic.


Cochran, DeRuiter, & King (1993) revised Shulman's original model to be more consistent with a constructivist perspective on teaching and learning. They described a model of pedagogical content knowledge that results from an integration of four major components, two of which are subject matter knowledge and pedagogical knowledge. The other two other components of teacher knowledge also differentiate teachers from subject matter experts. One component is teachers' knowledge of students' abilities and learning strategies, ages and developmental levels, attitudes, motivations, and prior knowledge of the concepts to be taught. Students' prior knowledge has been especially visible in the last decade due to literally hundreds of studies on student misconceptions in science and mathematics. The other component of teacher knowledge that contributes to pedagogical content knowledge is teachers' understanding of the social, political, cultural and physical environments in which students are asked to learn. The model in Figure 1 shows that these four components of teachers' knowledge all contribute to the integrated understanding that we call pedagogical content knowledge; and the arrows indicate that pedagogical content knowledge continues to grow with teaching experience. The integrated nature of pedagogical content knowledge is also described by Kennedy (1990).


Hashweh (1985, 1987) conducted an extensive study of three physics teachers' and three biology teachers' knowledge of science and the impact of that knowledge on their teaching. All six teachers were asked about their subject matter knowledge in both biology and physics, and they were asked to evaluate a textbook chapter and to plan an instructional unit on the basis of that material. Given a concept like photosynthesis for example, the biology teachers knew those specific misconceptions that students were likely to bring to the classroom (such as the idea that plants get their food from the soil) or which chemistry concepts the students would need to review before learning photosynthesis. The biology teachers also understood which ideas were likely to be most difficult (e.g. how ATP-ADP transformations occur) and how best to deal with those difficult concepts using a variety of analogies, examples, demonstrations and models. The biology teachers could describe multiple instructional "tools" for these situations; but, although they were experienced teachers, they had only very general ideas about how to teach difficult physics concepts. The physics teachers, on the other hand, could list many methods and ideas for teaching difficult physics concepts, but had few specific ideas for teaching difficult biology concepts.


Other studies have shown that new teachers have incomplete or superficial levels of pedagogical content knowledge (Carpenter, Fennema, Petersen, & Carey, 1988; Feiman-Nemser & Parker, 1990; Gudmundsdottir & Shulman, 1987; Shulman, 1987). A novice teacher tends to rely on unmodified subject matter knowledge (most often directly extracted from the curriculum) and may not have a coherent framework or perspective from which to present the information. The novice also tends to make broad pedagogical decisions without assessing students' prior knowledge, ability levels, or learning strategies (Carpenter, et al., 1988). In addition, preservice teachers have been shown to find it difficult to articulate the relationships between pedagogical ideas and subject matter concepts (Gess-Newsome & Lederman, 1993); and low levels of pedagogical content knowledge have been found to be related to frequent use of factual and simple recall questions (Carlsen, 1987). These studies also indicate that new teachers have major concerns about pedagogical content knowledge, and they struggle with how to transform and represent the concepts and ideas in ways that make sense to the specific students they are teaching (Wilson, Shulman, & Richert, 1987). Grossman (1985, cited in Shulman, 1987) shows that this concern is present even in new teachers who possess the substantial subject matter knowledge gained through a master's degree in a specific subject matter area, and Wilson (1992) documents that more experienced teachers have a better "overarching" view of the content field and on which to base teaching decisions.


The GC Teaching and Learning Center publishes Visible Pedagogy, a blog dedicated to advancing and expanding conversations about teaching and learning at CUNY. The posts below are especially relevant to conversations we had during our June Institute.


During the panel titled Postsecondary STEM Education for Social Transformation in our June institute, Drs. Adams, Stetsenko, and Das discussed a decolonizing stance toward science education. Their reflection on the issues of equity, access, inclusion, power, and positionality raised questions about how best to support students from marginalized groups. Culturally responsive teaching practices can support learners that have been historically marginalized in STEM by acknowledging their identities, histories, and sociopolitical contexts. These pedagogical approaches help instructors to construct learning spaces where students can find connections and relevance between science and their own cultures.


We support evidence-based and inclusive learning and teaching practices, educational programs and training, community building, and strong collaborations and partnerships with schools, departments, and other offices.


Rooted in Ignatian pedagogy and the scholarship of teaching and learning, the Center for Teaching & Learning is committed to the professional development of the campus teaching community. We work with faculty to support sound pedagogical practice while respecting individual learning differences, and help all instructors create a learning environment where all teachers and learners can succeed and flourish.


Inclusive Pedagogy is a student-centered approach to teaching that engages the wealth of intersecting social identities and positionalities that all students bring to the classroom. It must not be an afterthought, rather, it should permeate every aspect of curriculum and course design, classroom management, and assessment of teaching and learning (Iturbe-LaGrave, 2018).


"[Inclusive] pedagogy requires that educators embrace their students as whole human beings consisting of mind, body, and soul and create interactive and dynamic classroom environments that inspire deep and meaningful transformational learning" (Tuitt et al., 2016, p. 218).


"Inclusive learning and teaching in higher education refers to the ways in which pedagogy, curricula, and assessment are designed to engage students in learning that is meaningful, relevant, and accessible to all. It embraces a view of the individual and individual difference as the source of diversity that can enrich the lives and learning of others" (Hockings, 2010, p.1)


Recommended chapter: "Teaching Culturally Diverse Students". This indispensable handbook provides helpful strategies for dealing with both the everyday challenges of university teaching and those that arise in efforts to maximize learning for every student...


Ambrose, S. A., Bridges, M. W., DiPietro, M., Lovett, M. C., & Norman, M. K. (2010). How learning works: Seven research-based principles for smart teaching. John Wiley & Sons. Benokraitis, N. V. (1997). Subtle sexism: Current practice and prospects for change. Sage Publications, Inc.


Ungraded or formative assessment is a process designed to give ongoing feedback over the course of an intervention (Allen, 2004). This type of assessment enables faculty members to reflect upon their teaching practices as the class is in progress. Subsequently, professors can shift how they teach and organize learning for students in situ rather than waiting to create changes the next time a specific course is offered. Below are some ideas on how to assess the learning environment. 041b061a72


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